There are three basic components of the EGR System , excluding the PCM and the engine coolant temperature sensor, TPS and a couple of other things
The EGR Valve itself which is vacuum controlled, the Vacuum Regulator electrically controlled and the DPFE Sensor (Differential Pressure Feedback EGR) which is also electrically controlled.
To check the EGR valve you will need a vacuum pump, you will have to remove the egr tube or the valve itself to see if the valve opens when you apply vacuum if it moves smoothly all is good.
To check the vacuum regulator "T" pin either of the two wires, it doesn't matter which wire you check it is ground side controlled by the PCM turn the key on and check for battery voltage if you have 12V you have power, if you have power check the resistance of the regulator it should have somewhere between 30 and 70 ohms if it does all is good.
The DPFE Sensor is a little different it is a three wire connector you need to find the reference voltage wire check it on the harness side with DMM on DC volts it should have 4 to 6 volts with the key on engine off.
Also check the signal voltage to the sensor, back probe the correct wires (Signal and Ground wires)and check for voltage while the engine is running first cold and again when warm when cold there should be no signal and should be 0.20 to 0.70 volts as the engine gets warm the voltage should increase to 4 to 6 volts.
This in no way is all inclusive but if you have a little experience you should be able to do these checks.
Good luck, nothing ventured nothing gained. Worst case Google